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The Pre-Socratic Philosophers: Resources

thales.jpg (9321 bytes)"Pre-Socratic" is the expression commonly used to describe those Greek thinkers who lived and wrote between 600 and 400 B.C. It was the Pre-Socratics who attempted to find universal principles which would explain the natural world from its origins to man's place in it. Although Socrates died in 399 B.C., the term "Pre-Socratic" indicates not so much a chronological limit, but rather an outlook or range of interests, an outlook attacked by both Protagoras (a Sophist) and Socrates, because natural philosophy was worthless when compared with the search for the "good life."

To give the Pre-Socratic thinkers their full due would require an article of encyclopedic scope. Given that, I have decided to list a number of  sites on individual Pre-Socratic thinkers. 




Anaxagoras of Clazomenae (500-428 B.C.)
Anaxagoras entry (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Anaxagoras entry (MacTutor)
Anaxagoras Fragments and Commentary (Hanover)
"Philosophers of the Stage" (Jeffrey J. Kostiuk/Perseus)

(c.611-c.547 B.C.)
Anaximander entry (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Anaximander Fragments and Commentary (Hanover)
"Boundless Paradox" (Tom Rohrer, Oregon)

Anaximenes (fl. 550 B.C.)
Anaximenes entry (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Anaximenes Fragments and  Commentary (Hanover)

Democritus of Abdera (c.460-370 B.C.) 
"The Atomism of Democritus" (Jan Garrett)
Democritus entry
(Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Democritus entry (MacTutor)

Empedocles of Acragas (c.490-430 B.C.)
Empedocles entry (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Heraclitus of Epheseus (fl. 500 B.C.)
"Boundless Paradox" (Tim Rohrer, Oregon)
Heraclitus entry
(Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Heraclitus' Philosophy (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

(c.515-450 B.C.)
Parmenides biography (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Parmenides Links

Pythagoras of Samos (c.580-507 B.C.)
Pythagoras entry (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Pythagoras entry
Pythagoras and the Pythagorians: Fragments and Commentary (Hanover)

Thales (c.624-548 B.C.)
Thales entry (MacTutor)
Thales entry
(Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Thales, Fragments and Commentary (Hanover)

Zeno of Elea (fl. 5th century B.C.)
Zeno entry (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Zeno entry (MacTutor)
Zeno Commentary (Hanover)

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