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The History Guide is a world wide web project designed to assist teachers, students, and anyone else interested in the history of western civilization from its origins at Sumer to the present. This website includes ninety full-text lectures as well as almost three hundred secondary pages that contain biographies, primary sources, and lists of Internet resources. The History Guide has been online since August 1996. It was developed and is authored, edited, and maintained solely by Steven Kreis. I did my undergraduate work at Boston University and received a B.A. (1977) in both Philosophy and Political Science. I earned my M.A. (1984) and Ph.D. (1990) in History at the University of Missouri-Columbia. Full academic details are available by consulting my curriculum vitae. For a more personal account, you can read my intellectual autobiography.

The History Guide is an independent project and is not affiliated with any institution, educational or otherwise. The website,, is hosted by, with servers located in Burlington, MA.

The History Guide generates no income and is free from all commercial content.

Publicly-Accessible Texts

While the lectures and secondary pages have been made publicly-accessible over the Internet, they are not in the public domain: copyright is claimed by the author.

Users of the lectures, texts and other secondary pages at The History Guide agree to accept the following conditions of use:

  • no web pages located at may be used for any commercial purpose whatsoever without the written consent of the author.
  • no web pages located at may be downloaded in order to be housed on another server for public or private use without the written permission of the author. The content of these pages changes over time and the author wishes that only the most recent copies are made available at any time.
  • no web pages or images located at may be re-published in print or electronic form without the written permission of the author. Educators are welcome to print out pages as handouts for their students and students and others are at liberty to print out pages for their own education and edification.
  • no web pages or images located at may be downloaded and housed on any eEducation or eLearning infrastructure server (e.g. Blackboard, WebCT) at any time. 

Use of The History Guide

All content located at The History Guide has been designed for teachers to use in teaching and students and others to use in learning according to the following guidelines:
  • teachers are at liberty to point students to any page on this website.
  • teachers may download any document, and print/photocopy them for distribution as handouts or in course packets as long as authorship is recognized.
  • teachers may create syllabi and course outlines at their own website with links to any document located at The History Guide.
  • students and others may download any document for their own private use.
  • students must correctly cite any web page used in an essay or project.
  • plagiarism of any kind will not be tolerated.


The History Guide does not utilize cookies nor is any attempt made to ascertain the personal information of any visitor to the site.

Linking to The History Guide

The author of the The History Guide welcomes and has no objection to links made to any page included in the website. The following conditions will apply:
  • please be sure to cite the correct page title for any web page to which you would like to supply a link
  • teachers must notify the author in writing if they plan to link to any page located at for use on any eEducation or eLearning infrastructure (e.g. Blackboard, WebCT)
  • you may not frame or alter the appearance of any web page located at

It is not necessary that you notify the author of your intent to link to any page on the website. However, the author respectfully requests that you do write him so that it will be easier to notify you in the event that the address of the page changes, or that the page has been removed.

Use of Images

All efforts have been made to utilize images that are in the public domain. You may download or save to file any of the images located at any page on The History Guide. It is strongly recommended that you do not link to any image located anywhere within The History Guide. This is especially the case in the instance of web blogs -- do not directly link to any image on this site in any blog. This has the effect of artificially increasing traffic to my site.

Third Party Sites

The History Guide contains approximately 4000 links to external sites. The author has no control over the information obtained from these external sites. The author has made every effort to choose external sites based on content and availability. Non-commercial sites are always chosen over commercial ones. The author verifies the addresses of all links, both internal and external, about four times per year.


The author requests that if any typographical errors or broken hyperlinks are found on any page of The History Guide that he be notified by using the Feedback link located at the bottom of every page. Changes to web pages will be made immediately and corrected files will usually be uploaded within 24 hours of notice.

Users of The History Guide are urged to write the author with comments or suggestions. With more than 430 distinct web pages (and growing), the author suggests that you also note the title of the page you are referring to when you write. The author will answer all email. However, the author does not do homework! The author will, however, help students with any homework assignment.

| The History Guide |

Copyright � 2002 Steven Kreis
Last Revised -- April 13, 2012