The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (March 1918)
1. Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey on the
one hand and Russia on the other declare that the
condition of war between them has ceased. They have
decided to live in peace and accord in the future.
ARTICLE 2. The contracting parties will refrain from all agitation or propaganda against the governments or all state and military institutions of the other side. . . .
ARTICLE 3. The territories lying to the west of the line determined by the contracting powers and which formerly belonged to Russia will no longer be under her sovereignty. ... Russia gives up all interference in the internal affairs of the said countries. Germany and Austria-Hungary intend to determine the future fate of the said territories with the consent of their inhabitants.
ARTICLE 4. Germany is ready, as soon as general peace is established and Russian demobilisation will have completely taken place, to vacate the territories lying east of the line mentioned in . . . article 3. . . . Russia will do all in her power to have the provinces of eastern Anatolia promptly evacuated and returned to Turkey. The territories of Ardakhan, Kars and Batum will also be cleared without delay of Russian forces. . . .
ARTICLE 5. Russia will, without delay, proceed to demobilise her army, including those army units newly formed by her present government. Moreover, Russia will either bring her warships into Russian ports and keep them there until general peace is concluded, or will disarm them at once. . . .
ARTICLE 6. Russia undertakes to conclude peace at once with the Ukrainian people's republic and to recognise the treaty of peace between the state and the powers of the Quadruple Alliance. The territory of the Ukraine must be, at once, cleared of Russian troops and the Russian Red Guard. Russia ceases all agitation or propaganda against the government or the public institutions of the Ukrainian people's republic. Estonia and Lithuania must also be immediately cleared of Russian troops and the Russian Red Guard. . . . Finland and the Aland Islands will also be, without delay, cleared of Russian troops and the Russian Red Guard and Finnish ports of the Russian fleet and of Russian naval forces. . . . Russia ceases all agitation or propaganda against the government or public institutions of Finland. . . .
ARTICLE 7. ... the contracting parties bind themselves to respect the political and economic independence and the territorial inviolability of Persia and Afghanistan.
ARTICLE 8. The prisoners of war of both parties will be allowed to return home. . . .
ARTICLE 9. The contracting parties mutually renounce all indemnifications for their war expenses, that is, for government expenses for conducting the war, . . . including all requisitions made in the enemy's country.
[ARTICLES 10-13 deal with technical matters]
ARTICLE 14. The present peace treaty must be ratified. Exchange of ratification documents must take place in Berlin as soon as possible. The Russian Government binds itself to execute the exchange of ratification documents . . . in the course of two weeks. . . .
[The full text of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk is available at http://avalon.law.yale.edu/subject_menus/blmenu.asp.]
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copyright � 2000 Steven Kreis