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Pearl Harbor Resources

FDR and his advisors always considered Germany, not Japan, to be the United States' principal enemy in any future war. Just the same, FDR also understood that Japan had become an imperialist power and was aggressively trying to expand its control over China and southeast Asia. In September 1940, Japan joined forces with the Axis powers (Germany and Italy) in the Tripartite Pact, in which each member acknowledged their claims for expansion in Europe and Asia With US-Japanese relations deteriorating in the summer of 1941, the US insisted that Japan vacate China and reestablish an open door for trade in Asia.

On Sunday morning, December 7h, 1941, Japan attacked the American Pacific Fleet stationed at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. 2300 people were killed and eight battleships and numerous cruisers were damaged or destroyed. The following day (December 8, 1941), President Roosevelt declared war on Japan. The text of that declaration is included here. On the same day, Emperor Hirohito of Japan, declared war on the United States and Great Britain. A brief list of Pearl Harbor resources follows the document.

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To the Congress of the United States:

Yesterday, Dec. 7, 1941 - a date which will live in infamy - the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan. 

The United States was at peace with that nation and, at the solicitation of Japan, was still in conversation with the government and its emperor looking toward the maintenance of peace in the Pacific. 

Indeed, one hour after Japanese air squadrons had commenced bombing in Oahu, the Japanese ambassador to the United States and his colleagues delivered to the Secretary of State a formal reply to a recent American message. While this reply stated that it seemed useless to continue the existing diplomatic negotiations, it contained no threat or hint of war or armed attack. 

It will be recorded that the distance of Hawaii from Japan makes it obvious that the attack was deliberately planned many days or even weeks ago. During the intervening time, the Japanese government has deliberately sought to deceive the United States by false statements and expressions of hope for continued peace. 

The attack yesterday on the Hawaiian islands has caused severe damage to American naval and military forces. Very many American lives have been lost. In addition, American ships have been reported torpedoed on the high seas between San Francisco and Honolulu. 

Yesterday, the Japanese government also launched an attack against Malaya. 

Last night, Japanese forces attacked Hong Kong. 

Last night, Japanese forces attacked Guam. 

Last night, Japanese forces attacked the Philippine Islands. 

Last night, the Japanese attacked Wake Island. 

This morning, the Japanese attacked Midway Island. 

Japan has, therefore, undertaken a surprise offensive extending throughout the Pacific area. The facts of yesterday speak for themselves. The people of the United States have already formed their opinions and well understand the implications to the very life and safety of our nation. 

As commander in chief of the Army and Navy, I have directed that all measures be taken for our defense. 

Always will we remember the character of the onslaught against us. 

No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the American people in their righteous might will win through to absolute victory. 

I believe I interpret the will of the Congress and of the people when I assert that we will not only defend ourselves to the uttermost, but will make very certain that this form of treachery shall never endanger us again. 

Hostilities exist. There is no blinking at the fact that that our people, our territory and our interests are in grave danger. 

With confidence in our armed forces - with the unbounding determination of our people - we will gain the inevitable triumph - so help us God. 

I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, Dec. 7, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese empire. 

More Information
Air Raid Pearl Harbor: A Photographic History
Attack at Pearl Harbor, 1941

December 7, 1941-Japanese Bomb Pearl Harbor
(History Place)
Japanese Note to the United States December 7, 1941
(The "Fourteen Part Message")
Pearl Harbor Attack Hearings

Pearl Harbor Day Page

Pearl Harbor Documents
(Avalon)
Pearl Harbor Raid, 7 December 1941

Remembering Pearl Harbor
(National Geographic)
The Road to Pearl Harbor

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copyright 2001 Steven Kreis
Last Revised -- August 03, 2009
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